The Role of Renal Ultrasound in Children With Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

Dr. Shabbeer, Mohd Nizamuddin

Abstract


Background: This study was designed to examine the capability of renal ultrasonography (US) for predicting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring (RS), and to assess, using initial US, the significant urologic abnormalities that impact on management of children hospitalized with the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).

Methods: Hospitalized children aged ≤ 2 years with the first febrile UTI were prospectively evaluated using imaging studies, including 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan, US, and voiding cystourethrography.

Results: Of the 310 children analyzed (195 boys and 115 girls), 105 (33.9%) had abnormal US. Acute DMSA scans were abnormal in 194 children (62.6%), including 89 (45.9%) with concomitant abnormal US. There was VUR in 107 children (34.5%), including 79 (25.5%) with grades III-V VUR. The sensitivity and negative predictive values of US were 52.3% and 75.1%, respectively, for grades I-V VUR; and 68.4% and 87.8%, respectively, for grades III-V VUR. Eighty-five children (27.4%) had RS, including 55 (64.7%) with abnormal US. Of the 105 children with abnormal US, 33 (31.4%) needed subsequent management (surgical intervention, parental counseling, or follow-up of renal function). Nephromegaly on initial US and grades III-V VUR were risk factors of RS.

Conclusions: Abnormal US may carry a higher probability of grades III-V VUR and RS, and can affect subsequent management in a significant number of children. Nephromegaly on initial US and grades III-V VUR are strongly associated with an increased risk for RS. Thus, US should be performed on children after the first febrile UTI and children with normal US may not require voiding cystourethrography.




Int J Clin Pediatr. 2018;7(1-2):6-12
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/ijcp295e


Keywords


Children; Renal scarring; Renal ultrasonography; Urinary tract infection; Vesicoureteral reflux

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International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1255 (print), 1927-1263 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.     
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