Neonatal Withdrawal Following in Utero Exposure to Kratom

Emma Nellhaus, Lacey Andrews, Jessica Haas, David Miskell, Kenneth Kurek, Zachary Hansen, Todd H. Davies

Abstract


In recent years, the clinical definition of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has been expanded to describe neonates experiencing withdrawal due to in utero exposure to numerous neuroactive substances, not exclusively opioids. Complex NAS cases involving exposure to multiple and unusual narcotics have become widespread. Kratom is one such substance. It is extracted from tropical tree leaves, and can be used both as a recreational drug and to mitigate opioid withdrawal. Although kratom may potentially serve as a viable opioid alternative, its activity and the consequences of controlled use are largely unstudied, particularly in the pregnant population. A newborn male infant was not initially identified as being at risk for withdrawal due to no maternal admission of substance use and maternal urine drug screen was negative. On the first day of life (DOL), the neonate was observed to exhibit significant signs of withdrawal including high-pitched crying, facial grimacing, irregular respiratory pattern, mottling, and mild undisturbed tremors. Upon interview with the mother it was noted that there was heavy caffeine use, daily cigarette smoking, daily use of the “herbal alternative” (kratom) throughout the pregnancy. In this report, we present a case of NAS precipitated by in utero exposure to kratom, discuss the present body of research regarding kratom and consider potential implications of escalating kratom use on the incidence and severity of NAS. For this prenatally exposed neonate, clonidine was successfully used to control withdrawal symptoms.




Int J Clin Pediatr. 2018;7(4):55-58
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/ijcp317w

 


Keywords


NAS; Neonate; Withdrawal; Kratom

Full Text: HTML PDF
 
Home     |     Log In     |      About     |      Search     |      Current     |      Archives     |      Submit      |     Subscribe


 

     

Aims and Scope

Current Issues

Conflict of Interest

About Publisher

Editorial Board

Archives

Copyright

Company Profile

Editorial Office

Misconduct and Retraction

Permissions

Company Registration

Contact Us

Abstracting and Indexing

ICMJE

Ownership

Instructions to Authors

Access

Declaration of Helsinki

Contact Publisher

Submission Checklist

Reprints

Terms of Use

Company Address

Submit a Manuscript

Open Access Policy

Privacy Policy

Browse Journals

Publishing Fee

Publishing Policy

Disclaimer

Recent Highlights

Peer-Review Process

Publishing Quality

Code of Ethics

Advertising Policy

Manuscript Tracking

Advanced Search

For Librarians

Careers

Publishing Process

Publication Frequency

For Reviewers

Propose a New Journal

       
       

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1255 (print), 1927-1263 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.theijcp.org   editorial contact: editor@theijcp.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

DECLARATION: THIS JOURNAL SITE OUTLOOK IS DESIGNED BY THE PUBLISHER AND COPYRIGHT PROTECTED. DO NOT COPY!