Encephalitis Related to Human Parechovirus Type 3

Wataru Miura, Emiko Momoki, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Yuki Kasuga, Kaori Kimura, Kazumasa Fuwa, Yukihiko Fujita, Hiroshi Ushijima, Ichiro Morioka


Human parechoviruses belong to the Picornaviridae family and are classified into 17 genotypes. Recently, it has been reported that human parechovirus genotype 3 is an important cause of severe infections, including sepsis-like illness and encephalitis, especially in newborns and infants younger than 3 months. There are also reports that human parechovirus genotype 3 infections with central nervous system symptoms lead to high rates of neurological sequelae and death. Here, we report a case of a previously healthy 1-month-old girl who developed encephalitis related to human parechovirus genotype 3 and had a favorable outcome. The patient presented septicemic symptoms, including fever, tachycardia, tachypnea with retractions and seizures without an elevated inflammatory response. She lacked cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis but had hypercytokinemia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography showed abnormal findings. Together, these findings strongly suggested acute encephalopathy. She underwent emergency intubation for respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation was started. Intravenous phenobarbital injection was performed to prevent convulsion. She was treated using intravenous immunoglobulin with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. As of 2 years after discharge, her growth development is equivalent to her age and she has had no clinical epileptic seizures. In this case, human parechovirus genotype 3 was detected from pharyngeal swabs, stool, cerebrospinal fluid and blood by polymerase chain reaction assay. The patient was diagnosed definitively with encephalitis related to human parechovirus genotype 3. The symptoms that we observed should be considered for the differential diagnosis of human parechovirus infection. When a patient is suspected of having encephalitis related to human parechovirus, treatment including intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid must be started as soon as possible to prevent neurodevelopmental sequelae.

Int J Clin Pediatr. 2019;8(2):37-40
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/ijcp333


Human parechovirus; Encephalitis; Newborns and young infants; Hypercytokinemia; Intravenous immunoglobulin; Corticosteroid

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1255 (print), 1927-1263 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (
COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.theijcp.org   editorial contact: editor@theijcp.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.